Maximizing SAP General Ledger !

This indispensable reference book provides implementation teams, functional and technical teams, and end-users with a roadmap for the maximum utilization of SAP General Ledger. It focuses on using SAP General Ledger in real-world situations, details how to customize and optimize it for specific business processes, and shows you how to integrate it effectively with other SAP components.

SAP General Ledger Master Data
Learn how Master Data is structured in SAP General Ledger, including reconciliation accounts, balance sheet, profit and loss accounts, and the retained earnings account.

SAP General Ledger Integration
Get practical advice on integrating SAP General Ledger with Materials Management, Sales and Distribution, Logistics, and others.

Real-time Financial Accounting and Controlling Integration
Understand the tight integration between Financial Accounting and Controlling at the reconciliation ledger level.

Subledgers
Master the nuances of integrating the various subledgers with SAP General Ledger.

Planning with the SAP General Ledger
Discover how you can use SAP General Ledger to perform planning activities, stand-alone or in concert with other tools.
Highlights

Revenue Recognition
Cost of Sales Reporting
Preparing Financial Statements
SAP Closing Cockpit
Business Transactions
SAP General Ledger Integration
Document Splitting

About the Author(s)

Shivesh Sharma has more than 10 years’ experience working with SAP FI/CO and ERP Financials at IBM Global Consulting, PricewaterhouseCoopers, and CSC. He is the author of two books from SAP PRESS, Optimize Your SAP ERP Financials Controlling Implementation and Optimize Your SAP ERP Financials Implementation.
Table of Contents

… Acknowledgments … 17
… Preface … 19
PART I … Introduction to SAP General Ledger … 23
1 … General Ledger Accounting: An Introduction … 25

1.1 … Accounting Standards … 26
1.1.1 … Trends in Accounting Standards … 26
1.1.2 … U.S. GAAP … 28
1.1.3 … International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) … 29
1.1.4 … Comparing IFRS and U.S. GAAP … 29
1.1.5 … Technological Challenges of Moving from GAAP to IFRS … 30
1.2 … SAP General Ledger Evolution … 35
1.2.1 … Classic General Ledger … 36
1.2.2 … Special Purpose Ledger … 37
1.2.3 … SAP General Ledger … 39
1.2.4 … Comparison of SAP General Ledger and Special Purpose Ledger … 43
1.3 … Reporting Structure in SAP General Ledger … 45
1.3.1 … Data Structure … 45
1.3.2 … New SAP Tables … 47
1.3.3 … Reporting Considerations … 47
1.3.4 … Sizing and Performance Considerations … 49
1.4 … Summary … 49
2 … Parallel Accounting … 51

2.1 … Implementation Options in SAP General Ledger … 52
2.1.1 … Parallel Ledgers … 55
2.1.2 … Parallel Accounts … 57
2.1.3 … Parallel Special Purpose Ledgers … 59
2.1.4 … Parallel Company Codes … 63
2.1.5 … Comparison Summary … 64
2.2 … Parallel Accounting in SAP ERP Components … 65
2.2.1 … Financial Accounting … 65
2.2.2 … Asset Accounting … 71
2.3 … Key Concepts for the Ledger Approach … 74
2.3.1 … Leading Ledger … 74
2.3.2 … Non-Leading Ledger … 75
2.3.3 … Ledger Group … 75
2.3.4 … Representative Ledger … 75
2.3.5 … Ledger Selection … 77
2.4 … Customizing Settings: Ledger and Parallel Accounting … 77
2.4.1 … Defining Ledgers for General Ledger Accounting … 78
2.4.2 … Defining Currencies for the Leading Ledger … 78
2.4.3 … Defining and Activating Non-Leading Ledgers … 80
2.4.4 … Assigning Scenarios and Customer Fields to Ledgers … 81
2.4.5 … Activating Cost of Sales Accounting … 82
2.4.6 … Defining Ledger Groups … 83
2.4.7 … Defining and Assigning Accounting Principles … 83
2.5 … Summary … 84
3 … General Ledger Account Master Data … 85

3.1 … Structure and Environment of the General Ledger Account Master Record … 86
3.1.1 … Structure … 86
3.1.2 … Environment … 87
3.2 … Master Data at the Chart of Accounts Level … 88
3.2.1 … Setup … 88
3.2.2 … Cost Accounting … 91
3.2.3 … Master Record … 92
3.3 … General Ledger Account Master Data Customization … 94
3.3.1 … Number Intervals … 95
3.3.2 … Screen Layout … 96
3.4 … General Ledger Account Master Data in Company Code … 97
3.4.1 … Control Data … 97
3.4.2 … Create/Bank/Interest Tab … 104
3.5 … Retained Earnings Account … 107
3.6 … Editing General Ledger Account Master Records … 109
3.6.1 … Central versus Decentralized Organization … 110
3.6.2 … Changes to Chart of Accounts … 111
3.6.3 … Changes to Company Code Area … 111
3.6.4 … Blocking a General Ledger Master Record … 111
3.6.5 … Marking a General Ledger Master Record for Deletion … 112
3.7 … Process Flow for Maintaining a General Ledger Master Record … 113
3.7.1 … Process Flow for Creating a General Ledger Master Record … 113
3.7.2 … Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Components for Financial Accounting Master Data Management … 114
3.8 … Summary … 115
4 … General Ledger Accounting Documents … 117

4.1 … Document Lifecycle … 118
4.1.1 … Data Entry to Posting … 119
4.1.2 … Posting to Change … 121
4.1.3 … Posting to Archiving … 122
4.1.4 … Business Process Flow for Documents … 123
4.2 … Special Documents … 125
4.2.1 … Sample Documents … 126
4.2.2 … Recurring Documents … 126
4.3 … Document Views … 127
4.3.1 … Entry View … 127
4.3.2 … General Ledger View … 127
4.4 … Document Structure … 128
4.4.1 … Header … 128
4.4.2 … Line Item … 130
4.5 … Customization Settings for Documents … 130
4.5.1 … Document Type … 131
4.5.2 … Document Numbering … 134
4.6 … Summary … 138
PART II … Integration with Other SAP Components … 139
5 … General Ledger Integration with Order-to-Cash and Procure-to-Pay Scenarios … 141

5.1 … Business Process Flow … 142
5.1.1 … Order-to-Cash … 142
5.1.2 … Procure-to-Pay … 144
5.1.3 … Effect on SAP General Ledger … 146
5.2 … Order-to-Cash Scenarios … 146
5.2.1 … Sales of Non-Stock Items with Order-Specific Procurement … 147
5.2.2 … Sales Processing Using a Third Party with Shipping Notification … 148
5.2.3 … Sales Order Processing with Customer Down Payment … 149
5.2.4 … Cross-Company Sales Order Processing … 150
5.2.5 … Free-of-Charge Delivery … 152
5.2.6 … Customer Consignment Process … 152
5.3 … Procure-to-Pay Scenarios … 154
5.3.1 … Procurement Contract … 155
5.3.2 … Subcontracting … 156
5.3.3 … Procurement and Consumption of Consigned Inventory … 157
5.3.4 … Common SAP Terms Related to Procure-to-Pay Scenarios … 158
5.4 … SAP General Ledger Customization Settings for Order-to-Cash … 160
5.4.1 … Prepare Revenue Account Determination … 161
5.4.2 … Perform Document Summarization for Sales and Distribution … 163
5.5 … SAP General Ledger Customization Settings for Procure-to-Pay … 164
5.5.1 … Define Accounts for Materials Management … 164
5.5.2 … Perform Document Summarization for Materials Management … 167
5.6 … Summary … 168
6 … SAP General Ledger, Business Processes, and Logistics Execution … 169

6.1 … Business Process Flows … 170
6.1.1 … Time to Market … 170
6.1.2 … Forecast to Stock … 173
6.1.3 … Service Management … 175
6.2 … Transportation Processes … 177
6.2.1 … Transportation Process Flow … 177
6.2.2 … Key Concepts … 178
6.2.3 … Inbound Shipments … 183
6.2.4 … Outbound Shipments … 184
6.3 … Integrating Transportation Processes with SAP General Ledger: Customization Settings … 185
6.3.1 … Shipment Cost Document … 187
6.3.2 … Settlement … 190
6.4 … Summary … 191
7 … Integration of Financial Subledgers with SAP General Ledger … 193

7.1 … Financial Subledgers: Business Processes … 194
7.1.1 … Accounts Payable … 195
7.1.2 … Accounts Receivable … 196
7.1.3 … Asset Accounting … 199
7.1.4 … Cash Management and Bank Accounting … 201
7.1.5 … Lease Accounting … 203
7.2 … Financial Subledgers: Configuration Settings … 205
7.2.1 … Accounts Payable and Accounts Receivable … 206
7.2.2 … Cash Management and Bank Accounting … 210
7.2.3 … Asset Accounting … 214
7.2.4 … Lease Accounting … 217
7.3 … Summary … 219
8 … Real-Time Integration of Financial Accounting and Controlling … 221

8.1 … Introduction to Controlling … 224
8.1.1 … Cost Center Planning … 224
8.1.2 … Core Concepts in Controlling … 225
8.2 … Setting Up Financial Accounting for Integration with Controlling … 227
8.2.1 … Cost Element … 228
8.2.2 … Default Account Assignments … 228
8.3 … Setting Up Controlling for Integration with Financial Accounting … 231
8.3.1 … Reconciliation Ledger … 231
8.3.2 … Real-Time Integration … 233
8.4 … Summary … 239
9 … Integration of SAP General Ledger with SAP ERP Human Capital Management … 241

9.1 … Introduction to SAP ERP HCM … 242
9.1.1 … SAP ERP HCM Business Processes … 242
9.1.2 … SAP ERP HCM Solution Overview … 244
9.1.3 … Shared Services … 246
9.2 … Integration of SAP ERP HCM with SAP ERP Financials … 249
9.2.1 … Integrated Process Flow … 249
9.2.2 … Key Organizational Entities … 250
9.3 … Time Management and Payroll Processes … 252
9.3.1 … Time Management … 252
9.3.2 … Payroll Process … 253
9.4 … Payroll Accounting … 255
9.4.1 … Payroll Calculation Schema … 255
9.4.2 … Payroll Accounting Area … 256
9.4.3 … Interface Implementation Scenarios … 256
9.4.4 … Payroll Configuration Settings for Integration with SAP ERP Financial Accounting … 258
9.5 … Summary … 259
10 … Integration of SAP General Ledger with SAP Travel Management … 261

10.1 … Introduction to Travel Management … 262
10.1.1 … SAP Travel Management Process Flow … 263
10.1.2 … SAP Travel Management User Interface … 264
10.2 … SAP Travel Management Integration … 268
10.2.1 … Integration Process Flow … 269
10.2.2 … Implementation Scenarios: Infrastructure … 269
10.3 … Configuration Settings for Integration with Financial Accounting … 272
10.3.1 … Assignment of Wage Type to Symbolic Account … 273
10.3.2 … Conversion of Symbolic Account to Expense Account … 275
10.4 … Summary … 277
PART III … Maximizing Effectiveness of SAP General Ledger Business Processes … 279
11 … Business Transactions in SAP General Ledger … 281

11.1 … Posting Documents … 282
11.1.1 … Enjoy Posting Document Structure … 282
11.1.2 … Posting Documents … 284
11.1.3 … Posting Documents to One Ledger Group … 289
11.1.4 … Posting Documents with Reference … 290
11.1.5 … Customizing the User Interface for Posting Documents … 292
11.2 … Processing Open Items … 294
11.2.1 … Automatic Selection and Clearing … 295
11.2.2 … Manual Selection of Open Items for Clearing … 300
11.3 … Business Transaction Customization Settings … 303
11.3.1 … G/L Account Posting – Enjoy … 303
11.3.2 … Prepare Cross-Company Code Transactions … 306
11.3.3 … Open Item Clearing … 307
11.4 … Summary … 312
12 … Profit Center Accounting and Segment Reporting Using SAP General Ledger … 313

12.1 … Implementation Options … 314
12.2 … Profit Center Accounting … 317
12.2.1 … Assignment of Profit Centers … 317
12.2.2 … Differences Between Profit Center Accounting, Profitability Analysis, and the Special Purpose Ledger … 318
12.3 … Segment Reporting … 320
12.3.1 … Accounting Standards … 321
12.3.2 … Segment Reporting Processes … 321
12.4 … Master Data for Profit Center Accounting and Segment Reporting … 322
12.4.1 … Segment … 323
12.4.2 … Profit Center … 327
12.4.3 … Cost Center … 331
12.4.4 … Derivation of Master Data During Postings … 332
12.5 … Summary … 333
13 … Document Splitting … 335

13.1 … Introduction to Document Splitting … 336
13.1.1 … Document Splitting Process … 338
13.1.2 … Document Splitting Advantages … 342
13.2 … Implementation Options … 343
13.2.1 … Migrating to SAP General Ledger … 344
13.2.2 … Scenario 6: Implementing Document Splitting after SAP General Ledger Is Implemented … 347
13.3 … Basic Document Splitting Configuration … 348
13.3.1 … Classify G/L Accounts for Document Splitting … 351
13.3.2 … Classify Document Types for Document Splitting … 352
13.3.3 … Define Zero Balance Clearing Account … 354
13.3.4 … Define Document Splitting Characteristics for General Ledger Accounting … 355
13.3.5 … Define Document Splitting Characteristics for Controlling … 356
13.3.6 … Edit Constants for Nonassigned Processes … 357
13.3.7 … Define Post-Capitalization of Cash Discount to Assets … 358
13.3.8 … Activate Document Splitting … 358
13.4 … Extended Document Splitting Configuration … 360
13.4.1 … Define Document Splitting Method … 360
13.4.2 … Define Document Splitting Rule … 361
13.4.3 … Assign Document Splitting Method … 368
13.4.4 … Define Business Transaction Variants … 369
13.5 … Summary … 370
14 … Cost of Sales Accounting … 373

14.1 … Introduction to Cost of Sales Accounting … 374
14.1.1 … Business Process Flow … 374
14.1.2 … Configuration Settings for Cost of Sales Accounting … 379
14.2 … Managing Functional Areas … 382
14.2.1 … Assignment of Functional Area Rules … 383
14.2.2 … Deriving Functional Areas … 384
14.2.3 … Functional Area Substitution and Enhancement … 386
14.2.4 … Functional Area Integration with Asset Accounting … 389
14.2.5 … Functional Area Integration with Cost Center Accounting … 391
14.2.6 … Changing Functional Area Rules … 392
14.2.7 … Message Control: Add Message (Warning) … 392
14.3 … Summary … 393
PART IV … Period-End Processes in SAP General Ledger … 395
15 … Revenue Recognition … 397

15.1 … Revenue Recognition Requirements … 398
15.2 … SAP ERP Approach to Revenue Recognition … 400
15.3 … Sales and Distribution Revenue Recognition … 404
15.3.1 … Revenue Recognition Types … 407
15.3.2 … Business Events for Revenue Recognition: Proof of Delivery … 412
15.3.3 … Revenue Recognition Transaction Codes … 415
15.3.4 … Data Changes that Affect Revenue Recognition … 417
15.4 … Business Process Scenarios: High Tech Industry (Software) … 418
15.4.1 … Sale of Software Bundle … 418
15.4.2 … Perpetual Software License Sales and Maintenance … 420
15.4.3 … Subscription-Based Software License Sales … 421
15.4.4 … Sale of Education and Training Services … 421
15.4.5 … Software Maintenance and Support Renewal … 422
15.5 … Technical Settings for Revenue Recognition … 424
15.5.1 … General Ledger Master Data … 425
15.5.2 … Sales and Distribution Item Categories and Their Settings … 426
15.5.3 … Revenue Recognition Type on Item Category Level … 427
15.5.4 … Account Determination … 428
15.6 … SAP Recommendations and Constraints of Revenue Recognition … 428
15.6.1 … SAP Recommendations … 428
15.6.2 … Constraints … 430
15.7 … Summary … 431
16 … Financial Statements … 433

16.1 … Financial Statement Reports … 434
16.1.1 … Standard Financial Statements Reports … 434
16.1.2 … Drill-Down Financial Statement Reports … 438
16.1.3 … SAP NetWeaver BW Financial Statement Reports … 442
16.2 … Configuring Financial Statements … 444
16.2.1 … Defining Financial Statement Versions … 444
16.2.2 … Creating Financial Statement Versions According to Cost of Sales Accounting … 448
16.3 … Summary … 450
17 … Period-End Processes … 451

17.1 … Period-End Processes by Business Functions … 451
17.1.1 … Period–End Closing Activities for Financial Accounting … 453
17.1.2 … Period-End Closing for the “General” Plant … 457
17.1.3 … Period-End Closing for Service Orders … 458
17.1.4 … Period-End Closing for Sales and Distribution … 459
17.1.5 … Period-End Closing for Closing Projects … 461
17.1.6 … Period-End Closing for Inventory Valuation … 462
17.1.7 … Conclusion … 463
17.2 … SAP General Ledger Period-End Transactions … 478
17.2.1 … Check/Count … 480
17.2.2 … Valuate … 482
17.2.3 … Reclassify … 492
17.2.4 … Rollup … 495
17.2.5 … Allocations … 496
17.2.6 … Carry-Forward … 498
17.3 … Summary … 501
… Appendices … 503

A … Reporting, Closing Cockpit, and Authorizations … 503
A.1 … Reporting … 503
A.2 … Closing Cockpit … 510
A.3 … Authorizations in SAP General Ledger … 518
B … Glossary and SAP Abbreviations … 525
C … The Author … 529
… Index … 531

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