SAP Administration — Practical Guide

• Use step-by-step instructions to increase the efficiency of your daily work
• Learn from hundreds of screenshots and numerous checklists
• Discover tips and tricks for both routine and special activities

This administrator’s guide explains the tasks that you have to accomplish in order to master the administration of SAP systems. Click-by-click and with numerous screenshots, you will learn about all work processes that are relevant to everyday practice: routine and special tasks, administration with SAP Solution Manager, and the administration of operating systems, databases, and authorizations. The book is based on SAP NetWeaver AS ABAP 7.0/7.1, and is applicable to users of earlier and later releases.

Routine and Special Administration Tasks
Learn about every administration task, from daily jobs to system recovery steps that must be performed after a serious system failure.

Practical Knowledge
Benefit from descriptions that focus on real-life duties, with background information that will help you to better accomplish your tasks.

Detailed Click-by-Click Instructions
Explore detailed step-by-step instructions, illustrated by screenshots. This enables you to easily understand the processes and reproduce them in your system.

Checklists, Transactions, Forms, and More
Download all checklists—for critical tasks or for a security strategy—from the book. The appendices also contain helpful lists with transactions and tables, as well as predefined forms.
Highlights

• Security administration
• User administration
• Database administration
• Network administration
• Operating system administration
• Output management
• System maintenance
• Change and transport management
• Performance
• Diagnostics and troubleshooting
• Disaster recovery
The Author

Sebastian Schreckenbach has worked with SAP software for many years, and is currently an SAP Basis administrator for the city administration of Dresden, Germany. His work focuses on user administration and authorization management.
Table of Contents

… Introduction … 17
1 … Fundamentals of SAP System Administration … 23
1.1 … Tasks of a System Administrator … 23
1.2 … Guiding Principles for System Administrators … 25
1.3 … Definitions … 32
1.4 … Summary … 34
2 … SAP System Administration … 35
2.1 … Starting and Stopping the SAP System … 35
2.1.1 … Starting the SAP System … 36
2.1.2 … Stopping the SAP System … 41
2.2 … Instances and Operation Modes … 46
2.3 … Maintaining Profile Parameters … 62
2.4 … Specific Monitoring Transactions … 70
2.4.1 … System Log … 70
2.4.2 … ABAP Dump Analysis … 73
2.4.3 … Checking the Application Servers and Work Processes … 77
2.4.4 … Lock Entries … 80
2.4.5 … Canceled Update Requests … 83
2.5 … System Messages … 87
2.6 … Connections … 89
2.6.1 … RFC Destinations … 90
2.6.2 … SAP Gateway Monitor … 97
2.6.3 … SAPconnect … 99
2.6.4 … Message Server Monitor … 103
2.6.5 … Internet Communication Framework … 104
2.6.6 … ICM Monitor … 108
2.7 … Client Administration … 109
2.7.1 … Creating Clients … 110
2.7.2 … Copying Clients … 114
2.7.3 … Deleting Clients … 129
2.7.4 … Checking the Client Copy Log … 132
2.8 … System Copy … 133
2.8.1 … Database Copy of the Production System … 134
2.8.2 … Client Copy with Data … 135
2.8.3 … Client Copy without Data … 135
2.9 … Summary … 136
3 … System Monitoring … 137
3.1 … The CCMS Alert Monitor … 137
3.2 … System Monitoring with the Standard CCMS Alert Monitor … 138
3.3 … Adapting the CCMS Monitor Sets … 148
3.3.1 … Hiding Monitor Sets … 148
3.3.2 … Defining a New Monitor Set … 153
3.3.3 … Adding a Monitor to a Monitor Set … 156
3.3.4 … Deleting a Monitor from a Monitor Set … 159
3.3.5 … Changing Alert Threshold Values … 163
3.4 … Auto-Reaction Methods … 167
3.4.1 … Changing an Auto-Reaction Method … 168
3.4.2 … Assigning an Auto-Reaction Method to a Monitor Object … 173
3.5 … Summary … 178
4 … System Administration with SAP Solution Manager … 179
4.1 … Functional Spectrum of SAP Solution Manager … 179
4.2 … Maintaining the System Landscape … 181
4.2.1 … Creating a Server … 182
4.2.2 … Creating a Database … 184
4.2.3 … Creating a System … 186
4.3 … Solutions … 201
4.3.1 … Creating a Solution … 202
4.3.2 … Activating and Deactivating Solutions … 206
4.3.3 … Self-Diagnosis … 208
4.4 … System Administration … 211
4.4.1 … Central System Administration … 211
4.4.2 … Central System Monitoring … 227
4.4.3 … SAP EarlyWatch Alert … 240
4.5 … Maintenance Optimizer … 256
4.6 … Summary … 268
5 … Scheduled Tasks … 269
5.1 … Critical Tasks … 270
5.1.1 … Check Whether the SAP System Is Running … 270
5.1.2 … Checks to Determine Whether Your Backups Have Been Successful … 270
5.2 … Daily Tasks … 274
5.2.1 … Critical Tasks … 274
5.2.2 … SAP System … 275
5.2.3 … Database … 277
5.2.4 … Operating System … 277
5.2.5 … Other … 278
5.3 … Weekly Tasks … 278
5.3.1 … SAP System … 278
5.3.2 … Database … 279
5.3.3 … Operating System … 279
5.3.4 … Other … 280
5.3.5 … Overview of Transactions … 280
5.4 … Monthly Tasks … 281
5.4.1 … SAP System, Database, Operating System, Other … 281
5.4.2 … Checking Consumable Items … 283
5.5 … Quarterly Tasks … 284
5.5.1 … SAP System … 284
5.5.2 … Database … 285
5.5.3 … Operating System … 286
5.5.4 … Other … 286
5.6 … Annual Tasks … 287
5.6.1 … SAP System … 287
5.6.2 … Database … 288
5.6.3 … Operating System … 289
5.6.4 … Other … 289
5.6.5 … Overview of Transactions … 289
5.7 … Summary … 292
6 … Backup and Restore … 293
6.1 … Backup … 293
6.1.1 … What Has to Be Saved? … 294
6.1.2 … Backup Types … 298
6.1.3 … Backup Strategy … 304
6.1.4 … Strategy Recommendations … 305
6.2 … Restore … 308
6.3 … Performance … 310
6.3.1 … Performance Factors … 310
6.3.2 … Backup Performance … 311
6.3.3 … Restore Performance … 313
6.4 … Summary … 314
7 … Disaster Recovery … 315
7.1 … Preliminary Considerations … 315
7.2 … Planning for an Emergency … 317
7.2.1 … Which Measures Apply to Disaster Recovery? … 317
7.2.2 … When Should the Disaster Recovery Procedure Begin? … 318
7.2.3 … Expected Downtime … 319
7.2.4 … Restore Time … 320
7.2.5 … Communication in the Event of a Disaster … 320
7.3 … Recovery Team and Role Distribution … 321
7.4 … Types of Disaster Recovery … 323
7.5 … Emergency Scenarios … 323
7.5.1 … Damaged Database … 324
7.5.2 … Hardware Failure … 324
7.5.3 … Complete Loss or Destruction of the Server Facility … 325
7.6 … Recovery Script … 327
7.7 … Crash Kit … 329
7.8 … Testing the Disaster Recovery Procedure … 333
7.9 … Minimizing the Risk of Failure … 335
7.9.1 … Minimizing the Risk of Human Error … 335
7.9.2 … Minimizing Single Points of Failure … 335
7.10 … Continuing Business During a System Recovery … 336
7.11 … Summary … 337
8 … Database Administration … 339
8.1 … Planning Database Administration Tasks … 340
8.1.1 … Planning Database Tasks … 340
8.1.2 … Changing and Deleting Database Tasks … 344
8.1.3 … Checking the DBA Planning Calendar … 347
8.2 … Checking Database Actions … 350
8.3 … Performing a Database Analysis … 352
8.4 … Monitoring Database Performance … 359
8.5 … Database Administration—DB2 … 363
8.5.1 … DB2 Command Line Processor … 364
8.5.2 … Starting and Stopping the Database … 367
8.5.3 … Executing SQL Statements … 368
8.5.4 … Updating and Checking the Database Manager Configuration … 369
8.5.5 … Updating and Checking the Database Configuration … 371
8.5.6 … Managing Tablespaces and Associated Containers … 372
8.5.7 … Backing Up the Database … 375
8.5.8 … Restoring the Database … 377
8.6 … Database Administration—Oracle … 379
8.6.1 … SQL*Plus … 379
8.6.2 … Starting and Stopping the Database … 382
8.6.3 … Executing SQL Statements and SQL Scripts … 387
8.6.4 … Managing the Database … 389
8.6.5 … BR*Tools … 389
8.6.6 … Checking and Changing the Status of the Database Instance … 391
8.6.7 … Checking and Updating the Database Configuration … 393
8.6.8 … Managing Tablespaces and Associated Data Files … 396
8.6.9 … Backing Up the Database … 400
8.6.10 … Restoring the Database … 404
8.6.11 … Checking the Database … 407
8.7 … Database Administration—Microsoft SQL Server … 410
8.7.1 … SQL Management Studio … 411
8.7.2 … Starting and Stopping the Database … 413
8.7.3 … Files and Logs … 416
8.7.4 … Initiating a Backup Process … 422
8.7.5 … Setting Up Maintenance Plans for a Backup … 425
8.7.6 … Backing Up System Databases … 431
8.7.7 … SQL Server Logs … 434
8.8 … Database Administration—MaxDB … 435
8.8.1 … Database Studio … 435
8.8.2 … Starting and Stopping the Database … 436
8.8.3 … Database Monitoring … 438
8.8.4 … Backing Up the Database … 443
8.9 … Summary … 447
9 … Operating System Administration … 449
9.1 … Checking the Memory Usage of the File System … 449
9.1.1 … Monitoring the File System Using the CCMS Alert Monitor … 450
9.1.2 … Changing Alert Thresholds … 452
9.1.3 … Releasing Memory at the Operating System Level … 454
9.2 … Retrieving Operating System Information … 458
9.3 … Summary … 464
10 … Security Administration … 465
10.1 … What Is Security? … 466
10.1.1 … Protecting Data Against Damage or Loss … 466
10.1.2 … Adhering to Legal or Quasi-Legal Provisions … 466
10.2 … Security Levels … 467
10.2.1 … Access Security … 467
10.2.2 … Operational Security … 469
10.2.3 … Data Security … 470
10.3 … Safeguarding the SAP System … 471
10.3.1 … Preventing Multiple User Logons … 472
10.3.2 … Passwords … 473
10.3.3 … Limiting Access for SAP* or DDIC Users … 477
10.3.4 … Locking Critical Transactions … 477
10.3.5 … Preventing Changes in the Production System … 480
10.3.6 … Operational Security … 486
10.4 … Audits … 487
10.4.1 … Auditing Aspects … 488
10.4.2 … Auditing Tasks for SAP Administrators … 489
10.5 … Auditing Tools … 491
10.5.1 … Audit Information System … 491
10.5.2 … Security Audit Log … 493
10.6 … Summary … 507
11 … Performance … 509
11.1 … Short-Term Remedy of Performance Problems … 509
11.2 … Detailed Analysis of Performance Problems … 514
11.2.1 … System Load Analysis … 515
11.2.2 … Buffer Analysis … 520
11.2.3 … Memory Defragmentation … 522
11.3 … Analysis at Other Levels … 523
11.3.1 … Analysis at the Database Level … 523
11.3.2 … Analysis at the Operating System Level … 523
11.3.3 … Analysis at the Hardware Level … 523
11.4 … Summary … 524
12 … SAP GUI … 525
12.1 … Installation Requirements … 525
12.1.1 … Minimum Requirements for the User’s PC … 525
12.1.2 … Network Functions … 526
12.2 … Installation Scenarios … 526
12.2.1 … Installing SAP GUI from an Installation Medium … 527
12.2.2 … Installing SAP GUI from an Installation Server … 530
12.3 … Adding Systems to SAP Logon … 547
12.4 … Summary … 550
13 … User Administration … 551
13.1 … General … 551
13.2 … Setting Up New Users … 554
13.2.1 … Copying Existing Users … 554
13.2.2 … Creating a New User … 562
13.3 … Maintaining Users … 563
13.4 … Mass Changes … 563
13.5 … Resetting the Password … 566
13.6 … Locking or Unlocking a User … 568
13.7 … Central User Administration … 571
13.7.1 … Setting Up a Central User Administration … 571
13.7.2 … Creating and Maintaining Users Via a Central User Administration … 592
13.7.3 … Troubleshooting … 596
13.7.4 … Deactivating or Deleting a Central User Administration … 599
13.8 … User Groups … 608
13.9 … Deleting User Sessions … 610
13.9.1 … Displaying Active Users … 610
13.9.2 … Deleting User Session … 612
13.10 … System Administration … 613
13.10.1 … Special User IDs … 613
13.10.2 … Special Authorizations … 614
13.10.3 … User Passwords … 615
13.11 … Summary … 616
14 … Authorization Management … 617
14.1 … Authorization Check Process … 618
14.2 … Authorization Roles … 618
14.2.1 … Creating and Maintaining Single Roles … 619
14.2.2 … Creating and Maintaining Composite Roles … 629
14.3 … Authorization Profiles … 636
14.4 … Utilities for Authorization Management … 640
14.4.1 … Default Values and Check Indicators … 640
14.4.2 … Authorization Trace … 645
14.4.3 … Infosystem Authorizations … 650
14.5 … Summary … 652
15 … Background Processing … 653
15.1 … Creating Background Jobs … 653
15.1.1 … General … 654
15.1.2 … Creating and Scheduling Background Jobs … 655
15.2 … Monitoring Background Jobs … 662
15.3 … Graphical Job Scheduling Monitor … 665
15.4 … Performance Factors for Background Jobs … 666
15.5 … Summary … 669
16 … Output Management … 671
16.1 … Setting Up the Spool Servers … 671
16.2 … Setting up Printers … 675
16.2.1 … Configuring Network Printers … 675
16.2.2 … Setting up Frontend Printers … 681
16.2.3 … Transporting Output Devices … 684
16.3 … Outputting Data … 686
16.4 … Output Control … 688
16.5 … Deleting Old Spool Requests … 695
16.6 … Checking the Spool Consistency … 696
16.7 … Checking the TemSe Consistency … 697
16.8 … Summary … 699
17 … Change and Transport Management … 701
17.1 … General Notes on Change Management … 702
17.2 … Transporting Objects … 704
17.2.1 … Creating a Transport Request … 705
17.2.2 … Recording Changes in a Transport Request … 708
17.2.3 … Releasing a Transport Request … 710
17.2.4 … Importing Transport Requests … 713
17.2.5 … Checking the Transport Log … 719
17.3 … Direct Table Maintenance … 721
17.4 … Summary … 725
18 … System Maintenance … 727
18.1 … Downloading SAP Support Packages … 728
18.1.1 … Determining the System’s Current Support Package Level … 729
18.1.2 … Finding Support Packages … 734
18.1.3 … Downloading Support Packages … 748
18.2 … Important Notes on Preparing and Executing System Maintenance … 751
18.3 … Performing a Kernel Update … 752
18.3.1 … Kernel Backup … 753
18.3.2 … Unpacking a New Kernel … 753
18.3.3 … Stopping the SAP System … 755
18.3.4 … Replacing Kernel Files … 755
18.3.5 … Starting the SAP System and Checking the Logs … 756
18.4 … Applying the SPAM/SAINT Update … 757
18.5 … Importing ABAP Support Packages … 761
18.5.1 … Making the Support Packages Available … 762
18.5.2 … Importing the Support Packages … 766
18.5.3 … Performing a Modification Adjustment … 778
18.5.4 … Regenerating Objects … 779
18.5.5 … Performing Regression Tests … 783
18.6 … Installing Add-Ons … 783
18.7 … Summary … 789
19 … Diagnostics and Troubleshooting … 791
19.1 … Basic Procedure … 791
19.2 … Troubleshooting with the SAP Support Portal … 794
19.2.1 … Searching for SAP Notes with the SAP Support Portal … 795
19.2.2 … Customer Messages … 798
19.3 … Creating a Remote Service Connection … 819
19.4 … Implementing SAP Notes … 828
19.4.1 … Checking the System Patch Level … 830
19.4.2 … Implementing SAP Notes with the Note Assistant … 832
19.5 … Summary … 836
… Appendices … 837
A … Useful Transactions … 839
B … Security-Relevant Transactions … 845
C … Useful Tables … 851
D … Forms … 855
E … Bibliography … 861
F … The Author … 863
… Index … 865

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  1. Abdul Awal berkata:

    good ARTICLE

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